Considering that Matt O’Reilly from The Theology Project Online just posted “How Romans 9-11 (and Romans 8) Make Me Arminian” where he wants people to consider that Romans 9 may not be the silver bullet that so many Calvinists believe it is, I figured that I had better encourage people to head back toward the light!

So much theological debate centers around the doctrine of election. No one debates whether election is biblical, but they do debate the meaning of election. I believe in what is called unconditional individual election. It is an understanding shared by all Calvinists. 

Arminians, on the other hand, must oppose unconditional election. Otherwise, well . . . they would be Calvinists! In their opposition, they have to scramble and opt for some sort of conditional election or corporate election (or a combination of the two). Conditional election teaches that God’s election of us is conditioned on and based in our prior election of him (maybe that he saw ahead in time). Corporate election, on the other hand, is the belief that God elects nations to take part in his plan, not individuals to salvation or justification. So, when Romans 9 speaks of God’s election of Jacob over Esau, Paul is speaking of God’s choosing the nation of Israel to have a special place in salvation history. They will go on to interpret all of Romans 8-11 in light of this assumption.

However, I don’t believe that Romans 9-11 is talking about conditional or corporate election, but individual election. Here are eleven reason why:

1. The whole section (9-11) is about the security of individuals.

Election of nations would not make any contextual sense. Paul has just told the Roman Christians that nothing could separate them from God’s love (Rom. 8:31-39). The objection that gives rise to chapters 9-11 is: “How do we know that these promises from God are secure considering the current (unbelieving) state of Israel. They had promises too and they don’t look too secure.” Referring to corporate election would not fit the context. How could it? Would Paul be saying to the Roman Christians, “Don’t worry. You are corporately secure just like Israel. Let me demonstrate.” But if Paul were to respond by saying that it is only the elect individuals within Israel that are secure (true Israel), then this would make sense. Individual Christians are secure because all elect individuals have always been secure.

2. In the election of Jacob over Esau (Rom. 9:10-13), while having national implications, starts with individuals. We cannot miss this fact. It is a part for the whole. Without the election of the individual Jacob, Israel would not have experienced corporate election. Paul uses this only to show that it has always been characteristic of God to exercise his sovereign choice.

3. Jacob was elected and Esau rejected before the twins had done anything good or bad.There is no mention of the nations having done anything good or bad. If one were to say this is only nations that Paul is talking about, it would seem that they are reading their theology into the text. Again, the emphasis here is to draw a connection between the type of election Paul just promised the Romans (Rom. 8:33) and the election of Jacob. Jacob’s election was not a just reward for any service, good or bad, and neither is the election of the Roman believers.

4. Rom. 9:15 emphasizes God’s sovereignty about choosing individuals: “I will have mercy on whom I will have mercy.” The pronoun hon (whom) is a masculine singular. If we were talking about nations, a plural pronoun would have been more natural: “I will have mercy on those whom I have mercy.” Even then, the whole is made up of the parts. The individuals in this set group would still be elect. God’s mercy is a sovereign selective mercy. While you and I may be like this objector, scratching our head, wondering why he does not choose everyone or why He judges anyone who seemingly can’t change who they are, the tension of this passion is intentional and the resolution (or lack thereof) follows suit.

5. Rom. 9:16 is dealing with individuals, not nations. “So then, it does not depend on the one who desires or makes effort, but on the mercy of God” (my translation). theolontos (desire) and trechontos (effort) are both masculine singulars that is why it is translated “the one” rather than “those.” (BTW: I don’t like ESV’s translation of this [“man’s”] as it is misleading and, ironically(!), supporting of corporate election). It is hard to see national implications at all here. It is about individual desire and effort. The acquisition of God’s mercy transcends the ability of man.

It is important to see Paul’s use of the conjunction ara oun (“so then”). It is used only by Paul twelve times, eight in Romans. It is used to conclude or extend an argument. He uses it here and in 9:18 to bring the reader’s understanding to a sharp, if not tripod, conviction. It summarizes his arguments which preceded, including the arguments about Jacob and Esau. Again, if this is the case, then his conclusion about God’s dealings with Jacob and Esau focus on the implications of his dealings with man, as individuals, not cooperate entities. 

6. Once again, Rom. 9:18, speaking in the context of the hardening of Pharaoh, Paul summaries what he is trying to say using masculine singular pronouns: “Therefore, the one God wishes to have mercy on, he has mercy on. The one he wishes to harden, he hardens” (my translation). It would seem that if Paul was merely speaking about national or corporate election, the summary statement would change from Pharaoh to nations (plural), but the summary here emphasizes the sovereignty of God’s will (theleo) over individuals (singular).Please note: I understand that some would recognize that these particular verses are speaking about individuals. I don’t want to suggest a broad straw man umbrella. These may say while these verses are speaking about individuals, there are established national implications (an exegetically difficult conclusion that more than likely evidences theological preconceptions that must be met). Or they may say that these verses have nothing to do with election unto salvation. Again, a troublesome (if not understandable) trade. If this were the case, what would these passages have to do with the stability of the Roman Christians’ election of chapter 8?

7. The charge of injustice in Rom. 9:14 makes little sense if Paul were speaking about corporate or national election.  Injustice (adikia), of which much of the book of Romans is seeking to vindicate God, is not only out of place, but could easily be answered if Paul was saying that the election of God is only with respect to nations or has no salvific intent.

8. The objection in Rom. 9:18 is even more out of place if Paul is not speaking about individual election. “Why does he still blame people since no one can resist his will.”  The verb anthesteken, “to oppose or resist,” is third person singular. The problem the objector has is that it seems unfair to individuals, not corporations of people.

9. The imaginary objector would be corrected if Paul were speaking of individual election.The rhetoric of a diatribe or apostrophe being used by Paul is very telling.  An apostrophe is a literary devise that is used where an imaginary objector is brought in to challenge the thesis on behalf of an audience. It is introduced with “What shall we say…” (Rom. 9:14) and “You will say to me…” (Rom. 9:19). It is an effective teaching tool. However, if the imaginary objector is misunderstanding Paul, the apostrophe fails to accomplish its rhetorical purpose unless Paul corrects the misunderstanding. Paul does not correct the misunderstanding, only the conclusion. If corporate election were what Paul was speaking of, the rhetoric demands that Paul steer his readers in the right direction by way of the diatribe. Paul sticks to his guns even though the teaching of individual election does most certainly give rise to such objections.

10. Rom. 9:24 speaks about God calling the elect “out of” (ek) the Jews and the Gentiles.Therefore, it is hard to see national election since God calls people “out of” all nations, ek Ioudaion(from Jews) ek ethnon (from Gentiles).

11. The seven thousand men called out of the nation of Israel were individuals. In Paul’s specific return the the election theme in the first part of Romans 11, he illustrates those who were called (elect) out of the Jewish nation by referencing Elijah who believed he was the only one still following the Lord. The response from God to Elijah’s lament is referenced by Paul in Rom. 11:4 where God says, “I have kept for myself seven thousand men who have not bowed the knee to Baal.” This tells us two things: 1) these are seven thousand individuals that God has kept, not a new nation. 2) These individuals are kept by God in belief as the characteristic of their “keeping” is their not bowing to Baal (i.e. they remained loyal to God).

12. Paul makes certain that the Elijah illustration ties back to the individuals of Romans 9 whom God has sovereignly elected. Paul Using the Elijah illustration in Rom. 11:5, Paul argues that “in the same way,” God has preserved a remnant of believing Israel of which he (as an individual) is a part (Rom. 11:1). This “keeping” in belief of individuals is according to “God’s gracious choice” (11:5).

C Michael Patton
C Michael Patton

C. Michael Patton is the primary contributor to the Parchment and Pen/Credo House Blog. He has been in ministry for nearly twenty years as a pastor, author, speaker, and blogger. Th.M. Dallas Theological Seminary (2001), president of Credo House Ministries and Credo Courses, author of Now that I'm a Christian (Crossway, 2014) Increase My Faith (Credo House, 2011), and The Theology Program (Reclaiming the Mind Ministries, 2001-2006), host of Theology Unplugged, and primary blogger here at Parchment and Pen. But, most importantly, husband to a beautiful wife and father to four awesome children. Michael is available for speaking engagements. He can be contacted at [email protected]

    6 replies to "12 Reasons Romans 9 Makes Me Calvinist"

    • Michael Faber

      //1. The whole section (9-11) is about the security of individuals.//

      The whole section is about whether the word of God to the nation of Israel has failed (9:1-6). Bad exegesis. Begging the question

      //2. In the election of Jacob over Esau (Rom. 9:10-13), while having national implications, starts with individuals. //

      The selection of individuals TO FULFILL COVENANT. Not to eternal life. non-sequitor.

      //4. Rom. 9:15 emphasizes God’s sovereignty about choosing individuals: “I will have mercy on whom I will have mercy.” //

      Romans 9:15 is citing Exodus 33, where God has chosen to have mercy on the nation of Israel corporately. Bad exegesis

      //5. Rom. 9:16 is dealing with individuals, not nations. //

      Romans 9:16 is referring to the Jews who weren’t part of the real Israel who were hardened. This is one hypothetical Jew from the corporate whole. non-sequitur.

      //6. Once again, Rom. 9:18, speaking in the context of the hardening of Pharaoh, Paul summaries what he is trying to say using masculine singular pronouns://

      That doesn’t really matter. Pharaoh is an analogy to the corporate nation of Israel minus the remnant. Bad exegesis.

      //7. The charge of injustice in Rom. 9:14 makes little sense if Paul were speaking about corporate or national election. //

      The charge of injustice would be in reference to the word of God to the nation of Israel being fulfilled through a small remnant. It makes even less sense in Calvinist theology. non-sequitur.

      //8. The objection in Rom. 9:18 is even more out of place if Paul is not speaking about individual election.//

      It fits perfectly with a nation who has been given a promise, and that promise only fulfilled through a remnant. non-sequitur.

      //9. The imaginary objector would be corrected if Paul were speaking of individual election.//

      The imaginary objector would be corrected if Paul were speaking of the word of God to the nation of Israel. non-sequitiur

      //10. Rom. 9:24 speaks about God calling the elect “out of” (ek) the Jews and the Gentiles.//

      Just like the remnant are “out of Israel” in verse 6. Non-sequtur/

      //11. The seven thousand men called out of the nation of Israel were individuals. //

      They were also a group. non-sequitor.

      //12. Paul makes certain that the Elijah illustration ties back to the individuals of Romans 9 whom God has sovereignly elected. //

      Actually, it refers back to the remnant from the nation of Israel designated as a group in 9:6. Begging the question

    • Robert D Anderson

      I would love to respond to this as a Wesleyan. If I did, would you publish it?

    • There is no word “individual” in the text of Romans 9. The question is how the Church, which is the Pillar and Ground of the Truth, 1 Tm. 3:5, interprets the NT, for the Orthodox Church, not the NT, or Calvinism, is “the pillar and ground of the truth”. Individual election is Papism and Protestantism, and rejection of the Visible Orthodox Church. The Orthodox Church alone, founded by Christ, is the elect, it is corporate, and salvation is in the Orthodox Church, not oustide: extra ecclesiam nulla salus”, “outside of the Church there is no salvation”. Barnes, Patrick. The Non-Orthodox: The Orthodox Teaching On Christians Outside of the Church. Salisbury, MA: Regina Orthodox Press. Tillman, Fr. David. What About the Non-Orthodox? Chesterton, IN: Ancient Faith Publishing. Metropolitan Philaret of New York. Will the Heterodox Be Saved? Orthodox Christian Information Center, Liberty, TN: St. John of Kronstadt Press, Missionary leaflet. See also: Coniaris, Anthony M. (2008). Can A Loving God Be Wrafthful? An Orthodox Christian Perspective. Minneapolis, MN: Light & LIfe Publishing Company. Gillquist, Fr. Peter E. (2010). Becoming Orthodox: A Journey to the Ancient Christian Faith. 3rd rev. ed. Chesterton, IN: Ancient Faith Publishing.

    • See: Calvinists are outside of the Church, and election in Christ is inside the Church, not in the Protestant Reformation or the Papacy, which are great sins against the LORD Jesus Christ. Rose, Fr. Seraphim. (1999). Orthodoxy and the Religion of the Future. Platina, CA: St. Herman of Alaska Press.

    • Finney

      I’m surprised the only two points you make of Romans 11 deals with just the first paragraph, and doesn’t discuss how Paul applies the categories of elect, non-elect, hardening, mercy, stumbling, and the call.

      That’s the difference between Calvinist and Arminian interpretations of Romans 9-11. It’s not that Arminians “scramble” to find something that fits their view. It’s that we look at how Paul *uses* his terms. In 9 the Israelites who “stumble” are the non-elect in 11. And yet the non-elect in 11 are the ones who stumble not for their damnation but ultimately for their salvation. That’s the mystery of God’s strategy in human history that he reveals: in 9, their stumbling is for the benefit of those who accept Jesus. In 11, their stumbling is for their own benefit. The non-elect who are hardened and who stumble can be saved!

      Calvinists have to ignore verses 32+ of Romans 9, because it plays no role in their interpretation of the text. It’s almost as if Paul randomly changes the subject even though he purports to clarify it (“what then shall we say” is always used in Romans to clarify an argument).

      Turning to 11, and the remnant, as the great (and late) Calvinist scholar FF Bruce notes, the function of the remnant is evidence that God didn’t reject the whole. Paul’s allusion to his ethnic bonafides as a member of the tribe of Benjamin is to show that, since he’s a Jew and God didn’t reject him, God didn’t reject the Jews. The remnant are tokens of grace to be distributed to the nation.

    • Jeff Cloug

      Cards on the table, I’m from the Baptist cove of this body of theology. I get that there’s disagreement about individual vs corporate election and conditional vs unconditional, but this article is all about the former. Is your “The Day I Became a Calvinist” article from 2007-09-12 one you would choose to defend your position on the latter?

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